The History of an Enmity Iblees is a jinn created by Allaah - the Mighty and Sublime, from what He called 'smokeless flame of fire.' Allaah says:
"He was one of the jinn" (QI8[Kahf]:49);
and He the Most High - also says:
"And the jinns did He create from a smokeless flame offire." (Q 55[ar- Rahmaan}:15).
Allaah made the creation of the jinns including Adam - the father of man – and made Iblees enjoy great favours to which he himself would testify including being in the prestigious company of the angels - who are creatures from light - and was honoured and respected. Thereafter, Allaah - the Mighty and Sublime, created Adam (alayhis-salaam) from clay, and taught him all the names of everything. He says:
"And He taught Adam all the names (of everything), then He showed them to the angels and said, 'Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful.' They (angels) said: 'Glory be to You, we have no knowledge except what you have taught us. Verily,it is You, the All-Knower, the All-Wise.'He said: '0 Adam! Inform them of their names,' and when he had informed them of their names, He said: 'Did I not tell you that I know the Ghayb (unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing?'
And (remember) when We said to the angels: 'Prostrate yourselves before Adam.' And they prostrated except Iblees, he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allaah)." (Q2[Baqarah1:30-34) Furthermore, Allaah says: "(Allaah) said: '0 Iblees! What prevents you from prostrating yourself to one whom I have created with both My Hands. Are you too proud (to fall prostrate to Adam) or are you one of the high exalted? [lblees1 said: 'I am better than he, You created me from fire, and You created him from clay.'" (Q8[AnfaaI]:73-76).
So, Iblees in every pride and arrogance refused the command of His Lord to prostrate to Adam thinking that his being created from the 'smokeless flame of fire' or the fact that Allaah granted him great favours or that Allaah - the Most High - created him before Adamimplied that he was superior to Adam (alayhis-Salaam) and as such should not prostrate to him! The accursed Iblees failed to recognize that Allaah had created Adam with His Hands and had granted him knowledge among other great favours recognized by the angels - whose company became a source of boast for him - leading them to bow to Adam in obedience to their Lord! Iblees reasoned preposterously that he needed to remind (!!) the Most Wise and All-Knowing who created him of what he (Iblees) was created from and granted of favours so that He knows the inappropriateness (?) of asking him to bow to Adam! It is necessary to note here that the fact that Allaah - the mighty and Sublime -commanded Iblees to bow to Adam and his been cursed for disobeying the command is evidence that Iblees had a choice to obey, meaning - he was created to be able to choose to obey or disobey Allaah like man and the rest of the Jinns.
Cursed by the Most Merciful For his arrogant disobedience of Allaah - the Most High, the unrepentant Iblees was then cursed by Allaah and so it will ever be (and refuge is sought with Allaah)! Allaah says:
"(Allaah) said: '(0 Iblees) get down from this (Paradise), it is not for you to be arrogant here. Get out, for you are of those humiliated and disgraced." (Q7[A'raf}:14) He - the Most High - also says: "And verily! My Curse is on you till the Day of Recompense." (Q38[Sad]:78).
Declaring to Mislead Man Iblees - ash-Shaytaan (the accursed one) - recognizes the Lordship of Allaah and the fact that He is the One who grants supplications. Yet, instead of requesting to be forgiven; he sought to live until the end of the world (l). Why? Allaah - the Most High - says:
"[lblees] said: '0 my Lord! Give me then respite till the Day they (the dead) will be resurrected.' Allaah said: 'Then, verily, you are of· those reprieved, 'Till the Day of the timet' appointed.' [lblees1 said: '0 my Lord! Because you misled me, I shall indeed adorn the path of error for them (mankind) on the earth, and I shall mislead them all. "' (QI5[Hijr]:36-39).
Shaytaan also said:
"Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left, and You will not find most of them as thankful ones (i.e. they will not be dutiful to You)."·(Q7[A'raf]:17)
Shaytaan continued to vow and boast:
"Verily,I will mislead them, and surely, I will arouse in them false desires; and certainly, I will order them to slit the ears of cattle, and indeed I will order them to change the nature created by Allaah ..." (Q 4[Nisaa]:119).
So, he declared war on Adam and his descendants to mislead and make them become accursed too like himself and in doing this Shaytaan vowed to employ every strategy in a fierce battle that is to continue until the Day of Judgment! He deceived Adam and Hawwa Allaah granted Adam and his wife - Hawwa residence in the Jannah – to enjoy allthe favours in it but warned them not to eat from one of its trees. But Shaytaan, an avowed enemy to them both and to their descendants succeeded in deceiving them! Allaah says:
"Then Shaytaan whispered suggestions to them both in order to uncover that which was hidden from them of their private\ parts (before); he said: 'Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels or become of the immortals.' And he (Shaytaan) swore by Allaah to them both (saying): 'Verily, I am one of the sincere well wishers for you both.' So he misled them with deception. Then when they tasted of the tree, that which was hidden from them of their shame (private parts) became manifest to them and they began to stick together the leaves of Paradise over themselves (in order to cover their shame). And their Lord called out to them (saying): 'Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you: Verily, Shaytaan is an open enemy unto you?(Q7[A'raf): 20-22)
Also, Allaah says:
Adam (alayhis-salaam) and Hawwa (RA) sought forgiveness from their Lord and He, the All-Forgiving, forgave them. He Misled the People of Nooh (alayhis-salaam) Abdullah bn Abbass (RA) said:
"Between Nooh and Adam there were ten generations and all of them were on (the path of) Islaam." (Bukhaari).
This would mean that even when certain persons committed some sins, no one went so bad as to associate partners with Allaah. At the same time, some of the people were more fervent in their servitude to Allaah (more pious) than some others. These righteous and more pious men were loved and venerated by the people at the time. At the demise of the pious people amongst them, Shaytaan whispered to the people to make statues in their honour and that the statues should be placed in the places where these people sat to perform their acts of worship. He. (the Shaytan) deluded the people that that would be just as a means of remembering the people.
Shaytaan was to later appear to subsequent generations and then suggested to them the worship of these statues!! The people took to hiswords of misguidance and for the first time since creation, the worship of other than Allaah started!! Allaah. from His Mercies raised Nooh (alayhis- Salaam) to his people to remind them, and help them retrace their steps to the worship of none besides Him. He persistently invited them day and night for nine hundred and fifty years; yet they persisted in disobedience. In recompense, their disobedience earned them the grave punishment of being wiped off the earth's surface except for a few amongst them who believed in Nooh (alayhis- Salaam). It all started with them following the gimmicks of Shaytaan!! Iblees since then has misled so many other communities and people as individuals and as a group of people and he is still waiting to mislead many more; Allaah says:
AI-Imaam Ibn Jawzee (RAH) narrated that: A man said to Hasan al-Basree (RAH): 'Does Iblees sleep?' He responded: "If he (ever) slept we would know some rest!" A Return to the Creator of Iblees AI-Imaam Ibn Jawzee (RAH) describing the plots of Iblees and how to seek refuge from him said: It is reported from one of the pious predecessors that he said to his student: What do you do with Shaytaan when he lures you into a sin?' He replied: 'I will fight against him.' He said: 'If he returned?' He (the student) replied: 'I will fight him.' He (the teacher) asked again: 'If he returned?' he (the student) replied: 'I will fight him.' He (the teacher) then said: 'That will take a long time. Consider passing by a herd of animals and its guard dog barks at you or prevents your passage, what would you do?' He said: 'I will try to pass through making all efforts.' He said: 'That will take you a long time but when you seek the assistance of the owner of the herd; he will put it away from you.' And that is the surest way of breaking free from the tricks and traps of Iblees.
Why Did Allaah Create SHAYTAAN?
Shaytan is the fountain head of evil and harm. He raises his banner at every time and in every place. He calls people to disbelief and disobedience of the Merciful. Is there, then, any wisdom behind his creation? If yes, what is that wisdom? Ibn Qayyim has responded to this question in shiraal-A eel under the heading, "In the creation of Shaytan and his troops there is a wisdom that none can grasp except Allaah."
Perfection of Worship
From this wisdom is the perfection and completion of the servitude by the Prophet and the servants of Allaah by their struggling against the enemy of Allaah and his party and by opposing Shay tan and his supporters. Another important aspect is their seeking refuge in Allaah from Shaytan and their fleeing to Allaah in order to seek refuge from Shaytan's evil and machinations. It also leads to the attainment of lofty positions of worship that would hitherto not have been attained.
Servants of Allaah become more fearful due to their Sins
The creation of Iblees has made the angels and humans fearful of their great sins since they have witnessed what has become of Shaytan after his great sin. His fall from the nobility to ignominy was great and complete. Of course, the angels who witnessed that event attained a new worship of Allaah and a different submission to and fear of Him. They are like the slaves of a king who witness a slave being greatly humiliated. Those who witness that action will definitely be the most fearful and cautious in front of that king. Allaah has made him a lesson for those who reflect Shaytan is a lesson for all who differ from the commands of Allaah and who, out of pride, do not obey Allaah and who perform acts of disobedience. This is in the same way that our father Adam is an example for all of those who make mistakes as was his repentance and his return to Allaah. The fathers of the jinn and makind were tested by their sins. One father is a lesson for all those who continue in their sinful ways without enting while the other is a lesson for anyone who sins and returns to his Lord.
It demonstrates the complete ability of Allaah to create opposites
From the wisdom of creating Shaytan is Allaah's showing that He is completely capable of creating the likes of Jibreel and the angels as well as Iblees and the devils. This is one of the greatest signs of His ability and power. He created opposites such as the heavens and the earth, light and darkness, Paradise and Hell, water and fire, hot and cold, good and evil and so on. Opposites show the virtues of their opposites Part of this wisdom is to show the complete goodness of one of the two opposites. Opposites show the good points of their opposites. If there was nothing that was ugly, we would not appreciate what is beautiful. If it were not for poverty, we would not appreciate the value of affluence.
In the Creation of Iblees rests many aspects of worship Such worship includes the love of Allaah, trust in Him, patience, being pleased with Allaah and so on. These types of worship are most beloved to Allaah. These types of worship are realized through struggle (jihad) and the submitting of one's self to Allaah and to put one's love for Allaah before anyone else. And jihad is the apex of worship and most beloved to Allaah. These types of worship are fully actualized due to the creation of Iblees and his party. It makes apparent the meaning of many of Allaah's Names Many of Allaah's Attributes appear through the creation of Iblees, such as the Debaser, Elevator, the Honourer, the Humiliator, the Judge, the Just, the Avenger, and so on. These Names evoke their attached meanings that appear through His rulings such as\ His attributes of goodness, sustaining, mercy and so on. It is a must that both these types of names be evident in this world. It makes apparent the Allaah's Complete rule and control over the affairs of this Creation Allaah has complete rule and authority over this creation. His complete ability means His ability to administer the creation in any way, including the aspects of punishment, reward, humiliation, justice, grace, honouring and belittling.
Both types of creation (good and bad) must be present for all these aspects to be displayed. By Iblees's creation, Allaah shows His servants His Calmness and Patience From the wisdom of the creation of Shaytan is that Allaah loves to show His servants His Calmness, Patience, Mercy, Generosity, and so on. In order for that to be exhibited, it was necessary to create beings that associate partners with Him, opposes His rule, strive to oppose Him and work to anger Him. Some even compete with Allaah in His Lordship. Still Allaah grants them good things, health, provisions, and so forth. And He calls them to follow the way of good and to leave evil and polytheism. Even though, He still grants them all of those blessings, responds to their supplications, removes them from harm, and treats them kindly in the face of their disbelief, idolatry and evil. How much praise and wisdom belongs to Allaah for all of that. The Prophet (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:
"No one is more patient to the harm he hears than AIlaah. They claim He has a son while He provides for them." (Muslim) In yet another hadeeth that the Prophet related from the Lord, "Allaah has said, 'The son of Adam insulted me, and he had no right to do so. And he denied Me and he had no right to do so. As for his denying Me, it is his saying, 'He will not remake me as He made me in the first place.' And the initial creation is no easier for Me than the remaking. As for his reviling Me, it is his saying, 'Allaah has taken for Himself a son,' while I am -the One, the Everlasting, I beget not nor was I begotten. And there is none similar to Me. " (Nasaai)
This article was culled from the publications ofDeen Communication Limited