Your judges, look into their judgements from time to time; and pay them well so that they can meet their needs and do not have to look to anyone for support. Give them such a position in the state that no courtier or executive officer of yours can dare harm or influence them. Judges should be free of all fear. You must pay the utmost regard to this [so that] justice will not fall] into the hand of evil men who were motivated by selfish desires and who exploited justice and religion to gain their worldly ends.
Then there are your executive officers. Appoint them after careful scrutiny and trial, never on the basis of personal consideration or influence which are the source of corruption and dishonesty. Such men will be possessed of a high character, will not be swayed by avarice and will not lose sight of the end. Pay them also well so that they may not be in want and may not be tempted to help themselves to public funds which they hold in trust. If even then they disobey you or misappropriate public funds they will have no excuse. You must also, I carefully superintend their work and!' I appoint trustworthy persons to keep a watch over their activities. If they know that a secret watch is kept over them they will be more assiduous in discharging their duties honestly and treating people with consideration. [If any of them fall still into misappropriating public funds] award him corporal punishment make him surrender what he has misappropriated and subject him to full public humiliation.
Vanity and Display
Avoid vanity, do not pride yourself on what you consider your fine qualities and do not let flattery and sycophancy please you, for it is in this way that Shaytaan contrives to set to naught the good deeds of the virtuous. Do not make a show of any good that you may do to the people, nor ever think that what you have done is too much, nor go back on the promises you make to them. Do not be hasty in doing anything before its time, but when the time comes do not weaken. Always avoid the heat of anger, the violence of hands and the harshness of tongue. Do not appropriate to yourself anything to which all have an equal right and do not neglect the rights of others which are manifest, for it is your responsibility to see that rights are respected and a time will soon come when all affairs will come to light and you will be called upon to answer for the oppression of the weak.
Dealing with the Enemy
If the enemy invites you to a peace which will be acceptable to Allaah do not spurn the offer, for peace will bring rest and comfort and promote tranquility and prosperity in the country. Of all the obligations placed upon man by Allaah there is none which the entire world is so unanimously agreed upon, in spite of differences in thought and outlook as the fulfillment of one's word. Not only Muslim but even those who associate others with Allaah have observed agreements among themselves because they realized the dire consequences of breaking covenants. Finally, know that no ruler can discharge his obligation unless he applies himself to it wholeheartedly and prays for the grace of Allaah that he may remain steadfast to truth and justice and follow that path, regardless of its difficulties.
This article was culled from the publications of Deen Communication Limited