What they are Teaching US: No improvement had been made in the astronomy of the ancients during the Middle Ages regarding the movement of planets-until the 13th century AD. Then Alphonso the Wise of Castile (Middle Spain) invented the Alphonsine Tables, which were more accurate than Ptolemys.
What Is Correct: Muslim astronomers made numerous improvements upon Ptolemys findings as early as the 9th century CE. They were the first astronomers to dispute his archaic ideas. In their critic of the Greeks, they produced proof that the sun is the center of the solar system and that the orbits of the earth and other planets might be oval shaped. They produced hundreds of highly accurate astronomical tables and star charts. Many of their calculations are so precise that they are regarded as contemporary. The Alphonsine Tables are little more than copies of works on astronomy transmitted to Europe via Islamic Spain, i.e, the Toledo Tables.
What They are Teaching US: The English scholar Roger Bacon (d. 1292 CE) first mentioned glass lenses for improving vision. At nearly the same time, eyeglasses could be found in use both in China and Europe.
What IS correct: Ibn Firnas of Islamic Spain invented eye glasses during the 9th century CE, and they were manufactured and sold throughout Spain for over two centuries. Any mention of eyeglasses by Roger Bacon was simply a copying of the work of al-Haytham (d. 1039 CE), whose research Bacon frequently referred to.
This article was culled from the publications of Deen Communication Limited