The belief of Ahl us-Sunnah is that Eemaan is belief of the heart (which is its action), actions of the tongue and limbs, and it increases and decreases. In this edition we are going to examine the proof used in establishing that eemaan consist of belief and actions of the limbs.
And some of their 'proofs are the following: In the hadeeth where Jibril asked the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) about Islaam, Eeman and Ihsan, the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings be upon him) responded that
"Eemaan is that you affirm your faith in Allah, in His angels, in His Books, in His Messengers, in the Day of Judgment, and you affirm your faith in the Divine Decree about good and evil." (Muslim).
This is a proof that belief of the heart is part of Eeman, in fact the greatest part of it.
The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) also said:
"Eemaan has sixty odd or seventy odd branches. The uppermost of all these are the testimony of faith: 'La ilaha illallah' (there is no true god except Allah) while the least of them is the removal of harmful object from the road. And shyness is a branch of Eeman. "(Bukhaaree).
What this shows is that in addition to belief of the heart, Eemaan consist of actions of the limbs as well, that is the tongue and other limbs.
Actions of the heart
As for the heart Allaah has ordained actions upon it, Allaah says:
"Whoever disbelieved in Allah after his belief, except him who is forced thereto and whose heart is at rest with Eeman but such as open their breasts to disbelief, on them is wrath from Allah, and theirs will be a great torment. (Q16: 106).
In another verse He says:
"O Messenger, Let not those who hurry to fall into disbelief grieve you, of such who say: "We believe" with their mouths but their hearts have no faith. "(Q5: 41).
So this is what Allaah has ordained upon the heart from eeman, and this is it's action, and it is the head of eeman.
Actions of the Tongue, Ear and Eyes
As for the tongue, Allaah has made obligatory upon the tongue statement and expression of what the heart believes and affirms. In regards to that, Allaah says:
"Say, "We believe in Allah" (Q2: 136).
And Allaah has ordained on the hearing that it does not listen to what Allaah has prohibited and that it hates what Allaah has made unlawful for it. This is its action and it is from Eemaan. Allaah says;
"And it has already been revealed to you in the Book (this Qur'an) that when you hear the Verses of Allah being denied and mocked at, then sit not with them, until they engage in a talk other than that; (but if you stayed with them) certainly in that case you would be like them." (Q4: 140).
Then Allaah made an exception for forgetfulness, He says:
"And if Shaitan (Satan) causes you to forget, then after the remembrance sit not you in the company of those people who are the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers, etc.). "(Q6: 68).
And Allaah ordained upon the eyes that they do not look at that which Allaah has made unlawful, and that they become averse to what Allaah has prohibited for them. Allaah says:
"Tell the believing men to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things), and protect their private parts (from illegal sexual acts, etc.). That is purer for them. Verily, Allah is All-Aware of what they do. And tell the believing women to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things). "(Q24:30-31).
So that is what Allaah has ordained on the eyes and it is their action and it is from eemaan.
And Allaah combined all that he ordained on the heart, hearing and gaze in one verse, when He says,
"And follow not that of which you have no knowledge. Verily! The hearing, and the sight, and the heart, of each of those you will be questioned (by Allah). "(Q17:36)