Q: Is there any Sunnah prayer after Fajr prayer?
A: There is no Sunnah Prayer after the Fard Prayer of Fajr.
Praise be to Allaah. There is no Sunnah prayer after Fair prayer. Before Fajr there is a Sunnah raatibah prayer (established Sunnah) which is two rak'ahs. This is the most firmly established of the Sunnah raatibah prayers. The Prophet (salla llaahu alayhi wasallam) never failed to offer this prayer, whether he was at home or travelling. It was narrated that 'Aa'ishah (RA) said:
"The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) did not adhere more firmly to any naafil prayer than the two rak'ahs of Fair."(Bukhaari).
Concerning the virtue of this prayer, the Prophet (salla llaahu alayhi wa sallam) said:
"The two rak'ahs of Fajr are better than this world and everything in it." (Muslim).
It is Sunnah to recite in these two rak'ahs al-Kaafiroon and al-Ikhlaas, because Imaam Muslim narrated from Abu Hurayrah (RA) that the Messenger of Allaah (salla llaahu alayhi wa sallam) recited in the two rak'ahs of Fajr: "Qul yaa ayyuhalkaafiroon" and "Qul huwa AllaahuAhad."
Even after Fajr
The one who misses the Sunnah prayer before Fair may offer it after Fair prayer. The evidence for that is the report narrated by a1-Tirmidhi and Abu Dawood from Qays ibn 'Amr who said: The Messenger of Allaah (salla llaahu alayhi wa sallam) came out when the iqaamah for prayer had been given, and I prayed Fajr with him, then the Prophet (salla llaahu alayhi wa sallam) finished and found me praying. He said, "Take it easy, O Qays. Two prayers together?" I said."O Messenger of Allaah, I did not pray the two rak'ahs before Fajr."He said. "No, then." According to the version narrated by Abu Dawood, the Messenger of Allaah (salla llaahu alayhi wa sallam) remained silent. (Saheeh al-Tirmidhi).
AI-Khattaabi said: "This shows that the one who misses the two rak'ahs before the obligatory prayer may offer them after the prayer, before the sun rises"('Awn al-ma'bood). It says inTuhfat al-Ahwadhi:"Two prayers together?" is a question in the sense of denouncing, i.e., two obligatory prayers at the time of one obligatory prayer? Because there is no naafil prayer after Fajr, It should be noted that the words of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhiwa sallam), "No, then," mean: there is nothing wrong with you offering these two rak'ah at that time. This is indicated by the report of Abu Dawood, where it says, "and the Messenger of Allaah(salla llaahu alayhi wa sallam)remained silent." And 'Ata' ibn Abi Rabaah narrated that a man of the Ansaar said: "He did not say anything to him." AI-'Iraaqi said: its isnaad is hasan. And a version narrated by Ibn Abi Shaybah says:"He did not tell him to do that or tell him not to do it." And a version narrated by Ibn Hibbaan says: "he did not denounce him." The reports explain one another".
Q: Is praying in pants invalid? I have heard some people say that, because pants show the shape of the 'awrah.
A: Praise be to Allaah. Allaah has commanded the one who wants to pray to wear his adornment. Allaah says:
" O Children of Adam! Take your adornment (by wearing your clean clothes) while praying [and going round (the Tawaaf of) the Ka'bah] and eat and drink but waste not by extravagance, certainly He (Allaah) likes not Al- Musrifoon (those who waste by extravagance)" (Q7 [alA'raaf]:31).
So the one who wants to pray is enjoined to adorn himself for prayer, and not to do what many Muslims do, unfortunately, which is praying in their nightclothes or work clothes, and not beautifying themselves for prayer, for Allaah is beautiful and loves beauty. The scholars regard the minimum level of adorning oneself to be covering the 'awrah. Hence they stated that covering the 'awrah is one of the necessary conditions of prayer being valid, and prayer is not valid unless the 'awrah is covered. What is implied by their saying "covering the 'awrah" is that what is obligatory is covering the 'awrah, and that no matter what is used to cover the 'awrah, the prayer is valid, even if it is a tight garment that shows the shape of the 'awrah. This is what has been stated clearly by the scholars of the various schools of fiqh (madhhabs). There follow their comments on that.
1- The Hanafi madhhab: It says in al-Durr al-Mukhtaar (2/84): "It does not matter if it clings to the body and shows the shape of the body" - i.e., the garment that one wears when praying. Ibn 'Aabideen (RAH) said in his commentary on al-Durr 'al Mukhtaar: The phrase "It does not matter if it clings to the body", such as if it clings to the buttocks, but if it is thick and the colour of the skin cannot be seen through it, but it clings to the limb and shows its shape so that the shape of the limb is visible, then that does not mean that the prayer is not permissible, becausethe 'awrah is still covered".
2 - The Shaafa'i madhhab: al-Nawawi (RAH) said in al-Majmoo'(3/176): "If the colour is concealed but the size of the limb can be seen, such as the knee or buttocks and so on, the prayer is valid because the 'awrah has been covered. AI-Daarimi and the author of al-Bayaan stated that it is not valid if the shape can be seen, but this is an obvious mistake".
3 - The Maaliki madhhab: It says in al-Fawaakih a1-Dawaani, 1/216:
"It is valid if a man prays in a single garment":
that is subject to the recommended condition that it should be thick enough so that it does not show anything, otherwise it is makrooh, and it should cover all of his body. If it covers only the 'awrah that is most private, or it shows the shape of the 'awrah, then it is makrooh to pray in it, and the prayer should be repeated if there is enough time left". It is mentioned that it is makrooh to pray in a garment that shows the shape of the 'awrah, not that it is haraam. It says in Haashiyat al-Dasooqi that praying in a garment that shows the shape of the 'awrah is valid, but it is slightly makrooh [disliked], and it is mustahabb [rewardable] to repeat the prayer if there is enough time left. It says in Balghat al-Saalik (1/283):
"It is essential that the material be thick i.e., it not be see-through at a glance, and it should not be see-through at all, or it may be see-through when staring at it. If it is seen through at a glance, then it is as if it was not there (i.e., it is as if he is praying naked, because he is not covered). But if it is see-through when staring at it then he should repeat the prayer if there is time, as when the clothing shows the shape of the 'awrah, because praying in such a garment is makrooh according to the correct view".
4 - The Hanbali madhhab: al Bahooti (RAH) said in al-Rawd alMurabba' (1/494):
"It is not a condition that the garment should not show the shape of the body or part of the body, because this cannot be avoided. Ibn Qaasim (RAH) said in his commentary on al-Rawd alMurabba', commenting on the words of al-Bahooti quoted above: that is in agreement with the three imams, Abu Haneefah,Maalik and al-Shaafa'i (RAH); i.e., the view of Imam Ahmad concerning this matter is in accordance with the view of the three other Imams.
Ibn Qudaamah (RAH) said in alMughni (2/287):
"If it conceals the colour but shows the shape. The prayer is permissible, because this cannot be avoided". AI-Mardaawi said in al-Insaaf (1/471):
AI-Majd ibn Taymiyah said:
it is makrooh for a woman to tie something over her clothes (such as a belt), lest that shows the size of her limbs and body. Ibn Tameem and others said:
"it is makrooh for a woman to pray with something tied around her waist such as a wrapper or belt, etc".
Shaykh Sayyid Saabiq(RAH) said in Fiqh al-Sunnah(1/97):
"It is obligatory to wear garments that cover the 'awrah even if it is tight and shows the shape of the 'awrah".
Valid But Discouraged
These are the comments of the scholars on praying in tight garments that show the shape of the 'awrah. They clearly state that the prayer is still valid. But that does not mean that people are encouraged to pray in tight clothes, rather they should not wear tight clothes or pray in them, because that is contrary to the adornment that we are enjoined to wear when praying. Rather the issue here is whether the prayer is valid or not. Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan has issued a fatwa stating that if a woman -prays in tight clothes that show the shape of her 'awrah, her prayer is valid, although she is sinning by wearing these clothes. He said: "It is not permissible to wear tight clothes which show the limbs and the shape of a woman's body and buttocks. Tight clothes are not permissible for men or women, but it is especially forbidden for women, because the fitnah in their case is greater.
With regard to praying in particular, if a person prays with his 'awrah covered in such clothes, his prayer is valid in and of itself, because the 'awrah is covered, but he is sinning by praying in tight clothes, because he has transgressed one of the prescribed requirements of prayer by wearing tight clothes. This is one aspect. Another aspect is that it is a cause of temptation and attracts attention, especially in the case of women. So women should cover themselves with loose garments which will cover them and not show any of the limbs of their body or attract attention. So it should not be a thin or see-through garment, rather it should be a concealing garment which will cover the woman completely". [AI-Muntaqa min Fataawa al-Shaykh Saalih alFawzaan, 3/454].
Some scholars have explained the words of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam), "Women who are clothed yet naked" as referring to women who wear tight clothes. And Allaah knows best.
Q: Who were the scribes who wrote the letters of the Messenger (salla llahu alayhi wa sallam)?
A: Praise be to Allaah. Ibn al-Qayyim said:
"The scholars of seerah (Prophet's biography) have mentioned the names of the Sahaabah who used to write down the wahy (revelation) or the letters of the Messenger (salla llaahu alayhi wa sallam). They were: Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq, 'Umar ibn al-Khattaab, 'Uthmaan ibn 'Affaan, 'Ali ibn Abi Taalib, al-Zubayr ibn al-'Awwaam, 'Aamir ibn Fuhayrah, 'Amr ibn al-'Aas, Ubayy ibn Ka'b, 'Abd-Allaah ibn al-Arqam, Thaabit ibn Qays ibn Shammaas, Hanzalah ibn al-Rabee'al-Usaydi, al-Mugheerah ibnShu'bah, 'Abd-Allaah ibnRawaahah, Khaalid ibn al-Waleed,Khaalid ibn Sa'eed ibn al-'Aas(whom it was said was the first one to write down anything for him), Mu'aawiyah ibn Abi Sufyaan and Zayd ibn Thaabit. He requested them to do that and allocated this task to them. [Zaad al-Ma'aad, 1/117]
Ibn Muflih al-Hanbali said:
"A group of them wrote things down for the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sailam), including Ubayy ibn Ka'b, Zayd ibnThaabit, 'Ali, 'Uthmaan, HanzalahaI-Asadi, Mu'aawiyah, and 'AbdAllaah ibn al-Arqam, who was his regular scribe in charge of writing and responding to letters. He was the one who wrote down all the Revelation and whom the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahualayhi wa sallam) commanded to learn how to write Syriac so that he could respond on his behalf to those who wrote to him in that language. So he learned it in eighteen days". [AI-Adaab al-Shar'iyyah. 2/ 161]
And Ibn Haiar said: "AI-Qadaa'I said: Zayd ibn Thaabit used to write to the kings on his behalf as well as writing down the revelation. And al-Zubayr and Jahm used to write down the records of zakaah". [AI-Talkheesal-Habeer, 4/346, 347]
And Allaah knows best.