The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said "There are duaas that are responded to ... the duaa of the father against his son." (Adab Mufrad).
The dua of a father for his son could be a duaa of blessings and mercy for him if the father is content and happy with his son. On the other hand, the father can make a duaa against his son, if the son does not treat his father properly. In this, there is a strong encouragement to Muslims to treat their parent with kindness, and to avoid causing distress to them in anyway. And this is also a warning to parents not to rush in making a duaa against their children, for they might make aduaa in a state of anger which they would later regret.
The duaa of the mother is also included in this hadeeth, for the right of the mother is even greater than that of the father. The duaa of the parents for their daughter also comes under this hadeeth as well, since the rulings applicable to men also apply to women unless there exist evidence to the contrary. The story of Jurayj and his mother also proves this point. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said: A woman called her son while he was in his hermitage and said, O Juraij! He said, O Allaah, my mother (is calling me) and (I am offering) my prayer (what shall do)? She again said, O Juraij, He said again: "O Allaah! My mother (is calling me) and (I am offering) my prayer (what shall I do)?" She again said, O Juraij! He again said, O Allaah! My mother (is calling me) and (I am offering) my prayer. (What shall I do?) She said, O Allaah! Do not let Juraij die till he sees the faces of prostitutes. A shepherdess used tocome by his hermitage for grazing her sheep and she gave birth to a child. She was asked whose child that was, and she replied that it was from Juraij and that he had come out from his hermitage. Juraij said, "where is that woman who claims that her child is from me?" (When she was brought to him along with the child), Juraij asked the child: "O Baby, who is your father?" The child replied, The shepherd." (Bukhari). While the father is alive, the son can benefit from him by pleasing him, thus ensuring that he makes duaa for his son.
After the father dies, then the son must repay some of the sacrifices. that the father made for him, and part of this can be done by sincerely praying for him after his death. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said: "When a person dies, all of his actions are cut off except from three (matters): a sadaqah jariyah, or a pious son that prays for him, or some knowledge (that he gave) that others still benefit from." (Muslim)
The Quran itself commands this, for Allaah says: "And lower unto them the wings of humility and mercy, and O my Lord! Have mercy on them, even as they took care of me whilewas young." (Q[Israai]:24). So the pious son should make a point of regularly praying for his deceased parents, for this is the least that he can do to repay them for their kindness and care. Likewise, the daughter too should pray for her parents, as the hadeeth applies to both sons and daughters.
This article was culled from the publications of Deen Communication Limited